Emergency First Aid

Specific Treatments

  • Bleeding – Direct pressure, elevate, pressure point and tourniquet.
  • Shock – Lay patient down, elevate feet, keep warm and replace fluids if conscious.
  • Fractures – Splint joints above and below injury and monitor pulse past injury away from body.
  • Bee Sting – (anaphylaxis) Life threatening, see if the patient has a sting kit and transport immediately.
  • Burns – Remove heat source, cool with water, dry wrap and replace fluids.
  • Diarrhea – Drink fluids in large quantities.
  • Eye Injuries – Wash out foreign material, don’t open swollen eyes, leave impaled objects and pad and bandage both eyes.
  • Heat Exhaustion – Skin, gray, cool, clammy. Rest in cool place and replace electrolytes.
  • Snake Bites – Avoid moving person, splint affected areas, remove jewelry. No ice/incisions. Light constriction band. Transport.


Determine Responsiveness – Gently shake shoulder and shout “Are you Ok?”. If no response, call EMS. If alone, call EMS before starting ABC’s.

Airway – roll victim on back as a unit supporting head and neck. Open airway by head-tilt/chin-lift maneuver. Look, listen and feel for breathing for 3-5 seconds. If no response, go to “B”

Breathing – Pinch victim’s nose shut. Put mouth over victim’s, making a tight seal. Give two slow breaths. If chest does not rise, reposition and try again. If breaths still do not go through, use abdominal thrusts to clear airway. If chest does rise go to “C”.

Circulation – Check carotid pulse for 5-10 seconds until victim is breathing or help arrives. If no pulse, begin chest compressions.

One/Two rescuer CPR – Perform 15 external chest compressions at the rate of 80-100 times per minute to a depth of 1.5 – 2 inches. Reopen the airway and give two full breaths. After 4 cycles of 15:2 (about one minute), check pulse. If no pulse, continue 15:2 cycle beginning with chest compressions until advanced life support is available. If two rescuers are available, use a 15:2 compressions to breath ratio.

Burn Injury Treatment

  • Remove person from heat source, extinguish with water.
  • Provide Basic First Aid.
  • Assess degree of burn and area affected

First Degree – affected skin’s outer layer. Redness, mild swelling, tenderness and mild to moderate pain.

Second Degree – extends through entire out layer and into inner layer of skin. Blisters, swelling, weeping of fluids and severe pain.

Third Degree – extends through all skin layers and into underlying fat, muscle, bone. Discoloration (charred, white or cherry red), leathery, parchment-like, dry appearance. Pain is absent.

Rule of Nine” – for determining area burned.

  • Head 9%
  • Back Torso 18%
  • Right Arm 9%
  • Right Leg 9%
  • Front Torso 18%
  • Left Arm 9%
  • Left Leg 9%
  • Perineum 1%

>Cut away only burned clothing. DO NOT cut away clothing stuck to burned skin.

>Apply cool, clear water over burned area. DO NOT soak person or use cold water and ice packs. This encourages hypothermia.

>Cover burned area with sterile dressing, moisten with saline solution, and apply dressing on top.

>For severe burns or burns covering large area of body

Wrap in clean, sterile sheet followed by plastic sheet

Place inside sleeping bag or cover with insulated blanket

>Monitor ABC’s and keep burn areas moist

>Avoid hypothermia and overheating